A loudspeaker device is used to convert electrical energy into sound. PC Speakers, Computer Speakers, Home Speakers or Surround Sound loudspeaker consists of a thin bendable sheet called a diaphragm. The diaphragms purpose is to vibrate by an electric signal from an amplifier. These vibrations create sound waves in the air around the speaker. In the most common kind of loudspeaker, the diaphragm is constructed in a cone-shape and is attached to a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet. A signal current in the suspended coil, called a voice coil, creates a magnetic field that interacts with the already-existing field, causing the coil and the diaphragm attached to it to vibrate. To provide accurate and true reproduction of music, a loudspeaker must be able to reproduce an range of audio frequencies i.e., 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
This is not easily achieved with the use of a single loudspeaker, so most quality surround sound loudspeaker systems achieve this with the use of three different sizes, namely:
Sub Woofers, the largest speakers, reproduce low frequencies.
Midrange Speakers, the medium-sized speakers, reproduce middle frequencies, and -
Tweeters, the smallest speakers, reproduce high frequencies.
The Sub Woofers, Midrange Speakers and Tweeters were traditionally housed in the same speaker cabinet, however in the early 1990s, home sound systems switched to smaller pairs of speaker cabinets containing only the tweeters and midrange speakers and a single sub woofer cabinet designed to be placed in an out of the way location. This modern type of speaker arrangement takes advantage of the fact that the human ear is not able to efficiently determine the direction of low-frequency sound outputs, and as a result, stereo perception is not negatively affected by the location of the sub woofer speaker. A well designed enclosure will reduce unwanted resonances and at the same time, extend the frequency range of a loudspeaker system.
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